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Sunday, 18 November 2012

Reciprocal Teaching

When I was in Teacher's College we learned about a teaching strategy called Reciprocal Teaching.  Last year, when we were analysing our EQAO scores, we read the EQAO support document Summary of Results and Strategies for Teachers which suggested the use of Reciprocal Teaching to help students deepen their understanding when reading. 

This was interesting because last Spring, I went to see John Hattie speak at OISIE (thank you Regan for the invite!)  Hattie presented on the information in his book Visible Learning.  Basically, Hattie conducted a meta-analysis of over 800 of the different teaching strategies, initiatives, and factors we typically believe impact student achievement and ranked them according to their effect size on student achievement.  The results were pretty surprising.  Much of what we do in teaching has little or no impact whatsoever.  However, Reciprocal Teaching was ranked 9th in its effect size.  (To see the slides from his presentation click here; it is pretty powerful stuff!)

I spent the month of September getting to know my students as readers.  Most of October was spent frontloading our Reading Goal - being metacognative readers and matching students with appopriate texts.  Finally, in November, I was ready to create our Literature Cirlces. 

As you know if you've been reading my previous posts, I've been reading Iqbal to my students.  We tried using Today's Meet several times to have some of the students post what they were thinking as we read. This was very valuable because it showed other students what thinking goes on in a person's head while they are listening to and attempting to make sense of an oral text.  But we only did it a few times because my students found it difficult to read the text on the screen and follow along with the story.  We then switched to using an On-line Discussion Forum after the Read Aloud.  This was much more successful.  It allowed the students to see what a person is thinking after hearing the text.  But they still need to know what people are thinking DURING reading, (or in this case listening).

I then introduced my students to the new teaching strategy "Reciprocal Teaching".  I explained why we were doing it, and I also admitted that I had never used this strategy before, that it was an "experiment" and would be new learning for all of us.  I think it is important to include students in why you are doing what you are doing and let them know that their input and feedback is important and necessary.  We practised using the strategy while I read Iqbal aloud.

Reciprocal Teaching is a small group reading strategy.  One student is chosen to be the "leader".  But all group members are responsible for all parts of reciprocal teaching.  It encourages dialogue as opposed to "sharing".  Students ask questions about what they have read, (we use a Q-chart to help come up with "thick" and "thin" questions), they seek clarification for words or selections of the text that they don't understand, they summarize what they have read, and they make meaningful predications.  You can find more about Reciprocal Teaching from the website Reading Rockets.

I put the students into their Literature Circle groups and introduced each group to their novel.  I used Guided Instruction to help them through their first attempt at Reciprocal Teaching.  I am very lucky in that I have an awesome student teacher.  We do a lot of co-teaching, and because I have her, we can each do Guided Instruction simultaneously.

I found a PDF worksheet on the Reading Rockets website that I have adapted for my students.  I think there has to be a written component to help keep the students on track and to make them accountable for their conversation.  I encourage them to use jot notes, the worksheet is more for them than for me.

Here are some samples from my class.  If you click on them, they will appear larger in a new window.
This is one we did together during Guided Reading.

                   This is one another group did on their own during their Literature Circle.

Click here to get a copy of this Word Document that you can edit for your students and a copy of our Q-chart or Questioning Grid.

Three-Way Conferences

It has been three weeks since I last posted a comment!  I guess you can say I've been busy.  The last three weeks of my life have been all about assessment and writing Progress Reports about my students.  It took me over 40 hours to write up those reports! 

While I was out of the classroom, working as a Literacy/Numeracy Coach, I had the opportunity to watch many of the webcasts produced by our Ministry.  These webcasts support Teachers' professional development.  Having the time to watch and learn from them was one of the best parts of my former position.  One particular webcast that I was really intrigued by was on changing the paradigm of the traditional Parent/Teacher Interview.  The webcast is all about Student-Led Conferences. 

If you are familiar with Anne Davies work on Assessment, you will know that involving your students in Assessment engages them in their learning.  It helps them to be self-directed learners and critical thinkers.  If you involve students in the Assessment process (Assessment AS Learning) you help them reflect on their own success, help them determine what works well for them, what road blocks are in their path, and how can they circumvent those blocks.

I'm not quite ready for "Student-Led Interviews"; honestly, I have not had enough time to prepare my students for that.  But my goal is to have a "Three-Way Interview".  I've started to conference with my students one by one to review their progress reports.  When I conference with them, we go over a template (adapted from Anne Davies "Together is Better") that asks them what they have done well this term, what work they feel shows their growth as a learner, and what they think they need to work on. Then we plan a goal together, and more importantly, plan strategies for achieving that goal. 

The tricky part is finding enough time in the next four days to conference with each of them.  The thing that I'm finding most difficult about being back in the classroom is having enough time to do all of the things I want to do with my students.  We have had so many Assemblies, Presentations, Masses, Liturgies and Celebrations (at least two per week), that it really eats into our time.  But hopefully I will have a chance to meet with each of them, and together we will plan what to discuss with their parents and what work to highlight.

To find samples of the tracking forms, conference forms and rubrics I use click here.

On a slightly different note - (a tangent to the above)....

This year, our school will be reviewed by our Board's School Effectiveness Team.  To plan for this review process, we have been meeting regularly with our principal to discuss our School Improvement Plan.  Our principal said he wanted all of our Learning Goals for each subject displayed in the classroom along with the success criteria students can use to determine what they need to do to achieve each goal.  I did have my Math goals and my Reading goals posted, but for the other subjects I merely put our learning goals up on the board and then erased them at the end of each lesson.  Sometimes I only told the students the goals orally.  I felt I didn't have enough wall space to display each and every goal.

I decided to check with my students to see if the goals truly need to be posted.  I asked them, "What is our learning goal in Social Studies? Why are we talking about this?" (We are learning about trade).  None of my students could answer, but their heads all swivelled to where I had posted our Math and Reading goals.   I asked them why they had looked over there, and they said because they knew that our Reading and Math goals were there, so they thought maybe our SS goal would be there too.  I asked "Do you really look at those?".  They said that not only did they look at them, but that they really helped them.  I asked if I should post ALL of our Learning Goals, and they gave a resounding affirmative.  I asked where on earth I would put them, and they told me "On the cupboard doors where we can see them all the time". 

My friend Janice had introduced me to this sticky-tack paper that turns anything into a white board.  I still had a few rolls of it at home (because we teachers collect things like that knowing that someday we might need it...).  I covered four of my cupboard doors with it, and then my students helped me write our learning goals in student-friendly language, and then they helped me write the criteria that will determine whether or not they have been successful at achieving those goals.  I actually re-wrote it a few times; it is not so easy to write learning goals and success criteria.  We are still experimenting with it.  

As you can see, they have not all been written in the same format.  The Reading Goals almost seem like Success Criteria in themselves.  I am also trying to integrate our content areas into Language as much as possible.  I am teaching most of our Social Studies unit on Canada's Links to the World through our Lanaguge.  Many of our mini-lessons in Reading have been about finding the main ideas and summarizing them into jot notes for our SS projects on a trading partner.  Then we synthesize the information to explain why Canada should continue trading with this country.  I still find it complicated trying to turn the Curriculum Expectations into discrete Learning Goals for each subject especially when I am teaching 3 or 4 things simultaneously.  I welcome your feedback and suggestions!!!!